Mammal Orders and Families

Below is a current list of mammal families and higher taxonomic groups compiled for the course Mammal Diversity and Evolution (ANAT/BIOL 345/445). Click the name to hear its pronunciation.

It is primarily based on Wilson and Reeder (2005), though it also includes various extinct families and recent taxonomic updates to extant families based on the scientific literature. I have divided the taxonomic groups into three categories. If you are a currently a student in the course, here is what the different categories mean in terms of the mid-term and final exam.

1. Families in italics:

  • You DO NOT need to know the names or characteristics of these families.
  • You DO NOT need to be able identify the skulls of these families on a practical exam, at least not to family.

2. Groups marked with an asterisk (*):

  • You DO need to know the names of these groups.
  • You DO need to know how to identify members of these groups from a photo, their general morphology and ecology, etc.
  • You DO NOT need to be able to identify the skulls of these groups on a practical exam, though you DO need to be able to refer them to the correct higher-level group. For example, you will not be asked to refer a skull of Genetta to the Family Viverridae, but you might be asked to identify it as a carnivoran or a feliform.

3. All other groups:

  • You DO need to know the names of these groups.
  • You DO need to know how to identify them from a photo, their general morphology and ecology, etc.
  • You DO need to be able to identify the skulls of these groups on a practical exam.
  • You DO need to know which names correspond to orders and families.
  • You DO need to know the hierarchical relationships of these groups
  • You DO NOT need to know the ranks of groups other than orders and families.

All supraordinal groups are in bold or underlined. This is only done to help clarify their hierarchical relationships. The hierarchical relationships of subordinal groups are indicated by the degree of indentation. More subordinate groups are indented to a greater degree.

PROTOTHERIA
    Order Mononotremata
        Family Ornithorhynchidae: platypus
        Family Tachyglossidae: echidnas

METATHERIA
    Order †Sparassodonta*: South American carnivorous marsupials
        Family †Borhyaenidae*
        Family †Hathliacynidae
        Family †Proborhyaenidae
        Family †Thylacosmilidae*
  MARSUPIALIA
    Order Didelphimorphia
        Family Didelphidae: American opossums
    Order Paucituberculata
        Family †Abderitidae
        Family Caenolestidae*: shrew-opossums
    Order †Polydolopimorphia
        Family †Argyrolagidae
        Family †Groeberiidae
        Family †Polydolopidae
    Order Microbiotheria
        Family Microbiotheriidae*: monito del monte
    Order Dasyuromorphia
        Family Dasyuridae: native “cats” and “mice”, antechinuses, etc.
        Family Myrmecobiidae: numbat
        Family †Thylacinidae: thylacine
    Order Notoryctemorphia
        Family Notoryctidae*: marsupial moles
    Order Peramelamorphia
        Family Chaeropodidae: pig-footed bandicoot
        Family Peramelidae: bandicoots
        Family Thylacomyidae*: bilbies
    Order Diprotodontia
     Suborder Macropodiformes
        Family Hypsiprymnodontidae: musky rat kangaroo
        Family Macropodidae: kangaroos and wallabies
        Family Potoroidae: bettongs, rat kangaroos
      Suborder Phalangeriformes
        Family Acrobatidae*: feathertail glider, feathertail possum
        Family Petauridae*: lesser gliders, Leadbeater’s possum, striped possums
        Family Pseudocheiridae: ringtail possums, greater glider
        Family Tarsipedidae*: honey possum
        Family Burramyidae: pygmy possums
        Family Phalanageridae: brushtail possums, cuscuses
      Suborder Vombatiformes
        Family Phascolarctidae: koala
        Family Vombatidae: wombats

EUTHERIA (PLACENTALIA)
Xenarthra
    Order Pilosa
      Suborder Vermilingua
        Family Cyclopedidae: silky anteaters
        Family Myrmecohagidae: anteaters
      Suborder Tardigrada
        Family Bradypodidae: three-toed sloths
        Family Megalonychidae: two-toes sloths
        Family †Mylodontidae*: extinct sloths
        Family †Megatheriidae*: extinct sloths
        Family †Nothrotheriidae*: extinct sloths
    Order Cingulata
        Family Dasypodidae
        Family †Glyptodontidae*: glyptodonts
        Family †Pampatheriidae*: pampatheres
        Family †Peltephilidae: horned armadillos

Afrotheria
    Order Afrosoricida
        Family Chrysochloridae: golden moles
        Family Potamogalidae: African otter-shrews
        Family Tenrecidae: tenrecs
    Order Macroscelidea
        Family Macroscelididae: sengis
    Order Tubulidentata
        Family Orycteropodidae: aardvark
 Paenungulata
    Order Hyracoidea
        Family Procaviidae: hyraxes
  Tethytheria (within Paenungulata)
    Order Proboscidea
        Family Elephantidae: elephants
    Order Sirenia
        Family Dugongidae: dugong
        Family Trichechidae: manatees
    Order †Embrithopoda
        Family †Arsinoitheriidae
    Order †Desmostylia

Laurasiatheria
    Order Carnivora
     Suborder Feliformia
        Family †Nimravidae
        Family Nandiniidae: African palm civet
        Family Felidae: cats
        Family Viverridae: civets, genets
        Family Hyaenidae: hyenas
        Family Herpestidae: mongooses
        Family Eupleridae*: Malagasy carnivorans
      Suborder Caniformia
        Family Canidae: dogs, foxes, wolves
        Family Ursidae: bears
      Pinnipedia
        Family Phocidae: true seals
        Family Otariidae: sea lions and fur seals
        Family Odobenidae: walrus
      Musteloidea
        Family Ailuridae: red panda
        Family Mephitidae*: skunks, stink badgers
        Family Procyonidae: raccoons, coatis
        Family Mustelidae: weasels, badgers
    Order Pholidota
        Family Manidae: pangolins
    Order Chiroptera
      Suborder Yinpterochiroptera*
        Family Pteropodidae: Old World fruit bats
        Family Rhinolophidae*: horseshoe bats
        Family Hipposideridae*: leaf-nosed, roundleaf, and trident bats
        Family Megadermatidae: false vampire bats
        Family Craseonycteridae: bumblebee bat
        Family Rhinopomatidae: mouse-tailed bats
      Suborder Yangochiroptera*
        Family Emballonuridae: sac-winged and sheath-tailed bats
        Family Nycteridae: slit-faced bats
        Family Phyllostomidae*: New World leaf-nosed bats
        Family Mormoopidae: ghost-faced, moustached, naked-backed bats
        Family Noctilionidae: bulldog bats/fishing bats
        Family Furipteridae: smoky and thumbless bats
        Family Thyropteridae*: disc-winged bats
        Family Mystacinidae*: New Zealand short-tailed bats
        Family Myzopodidae: Old World sucker-footed bat
        Family Miniopteridae: bent-wing bats
        Family Vespertilionidae: evening and vesper bats
        Family Molossidae*: free-tailed bats
        Family Natalidae: funnel-eared bats
    Order Perissodactyla
        Family Equidae: horses
        Family Tapiridae: tapirs
        Family Rhinocerotidae: rhinos
        Family †Brontotheriidae*
        Family †Chalicotheriidae*
    Order Eulipotyphla
        Family Erinaceidae: hedgehogs, gymnures/moonrats
        Family Solenodontidae: solenodons
        Family †Nesophontidae
        Family Soricidae: shrews
        Family Talpidae: moles, desmans
   Cetartiodactyla
    Suiformes
        Family Suidae: pigs
        Family †Entelodontidae
        Family Tayassuidae: peccaries
    Tylopoda
        Family Camelidae: camels
        Family †Protoceratidae
        Superfamily †Oreodontoidea*: oreodonts (various families)
   Whippomorpha (includes Cetacea, below)
        Family Hippopotamidae: hippos
    “Order” Cetacea (probably no longer ordinal rank)
      Suborder Odontoceti
        Family Delphinidae: dolphins, orcas, etc.
        Family Iniidae*: river dolphins
        Family Monodontidae: narwhal, beluga
        Family Phocoenidae: porpoises
        Family Physeteridae: sperm whales
        Family Platanistidae: Indian river dolphins
        Family Ziphiidae: beaked whales
      Suborder Mysticeti
        Family Balaenidae: right, bowhead whales
        Family Balaenopteridae: rorquals
        Family Cetotheriidae*: pygmy right whale
        Family Eschrichtiidae*: gray whale
      Ruminantia
        Family Tragulidae: chevrotains and mouse deer
        Family Antilocapridae: pronghorn
        Family Giraffidae: giraffes and okapi
        Family Cervidae: deer, elk, moose, etc.
        Family Moschidae: musk deer
        Family Bovidae: cattle, sheep, antelope, goats, etc.

Euarchontoglires
  Euarchonta
    Order Scandentia
        Family Ptilocercidae*: pen-tailed treeshrew
        Family Tupaiidae: treeshrews
    Order Dermoptera
        Family Cynocephalidae: colugos (aka “flying lemurs”)
    Order Primates
     Suborder Strepsirrhini
        Family Galagidae: galagos and bushbabies
        Family Lorisidae: lorises and pottos
        Family Cheirogaleidae*: dwarf and mouse lemurs
        Family Lemuridae: true lemurs
        Family Lepilemuridae*: sportive lemurs
        Family Indriidae*: indris, sifakas
        Family Daubentoniidae: aye-aye
     Suborder Haplorrhini
        Family Tarsiidae
      Catarrhini
        Family Cercopithecidae: Old World monkeys
        Family Hylobatidae*: gibbons
        Family Hominidae: great apes
      Platyrrhini
        Family Atelidae: howler, spider, wooly monkeys
        Family Cebidae: tamarins, capuchins, night monkeys
        Family Pitheciidae*: titi monkeys, sakis, uakari
  Glires
    Order Lagomorpha
        Family Leporidae: rabbits and hares
        Family Ochotonidae: pikas
    Order Rodentia
     Suborder Anomaluromorpha
        Family Anomaluridae*: scaly-tailed squirrels
        Family Pedetidae: springhares
        Family Zenkerellidae: Cameroon scaly-tail
     Suborder Castorimorpha
        Family Castoridae: beavers
        Family Geomyidae: pocket gophers
        Family Heteromyidae: kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice
     Suborder Hystricomorpha
        Family Ctenodactylidae: gundis
        Family Diatomyidae*: Laotian rock rat
      Hystricognathi
        Family Bathyergidae*: African mole-rats
        Family Hystricidae
        Family Petromuridae: dassie rat
        Family Thryonomyidae: cane rats
       Caviomorpha
        Family Abrocomidae: chinchilla rats
        Family Capromyidae*: West Indian hutias
        Family Caviidae: guinea pigs, capybaras, maras
        Family Chinchillidae: chinchillas and viscachas
        Family Ctenomyidae*: tuco-tucos
        Family Cuniculidae: pacas
        Family Dasyproctidae*: agoutis and acouchis
        Family Dinomyidae: pacarana
        Family Echimyidae*: spiny rats (including the nutria)
        Family Erethizontidae: New World porcupines
        Family Octodontidae: degus, rock rats, viscacha rats
     Suborder Myomorpha
        Family Dipodidae*: jerboas, birch mice, jumping mice
        Family Calomyscidae: mouse-like hamsters
        Family Cricetidae: New world mice, rats, voles, hamsters
        Family Muridae*: Old World mice, rats, gerbils
        Family Nesomyidae: endemic Africa and Malagasy mice
        Family Platacanthomyidae: Malabar spiny dormouse, pygmy dormice
        Family Spalacidae: blind and African mole rats, zokors, bamboo rats
     Suborder Sciuromorpha
        Family Aplodontiidae: mountain beaver
        Family †Mylagaulidae
        Family Gliridae*: dormice and hazel mice
        Family Sciuridae: squirrels

South American Endemic Ungulates (SANUs)
    Order †Notoungulata*
     Suborder †Toxodontia*
        Family †Homalodotheriidae*
        Family †Notohippidae*
        Family †Toxodontidae*
     Suborder †Typotheria*
        Family †Interatheriidae*
        Family †Mesotheriidae*
        Family †Hegetotheriidae*
    Order †Litopterna*
        Family †Proterotheriidae*
        Family †Macraucheniidae*
    Order †Pyrotheria*
        Family †Pyrotheriidae*
    Order †Astrapotheria*
        Family †Astrapotheriidae*

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