Mammal Orders and Families

Below is a current list of mammal families and higher taxonomic groups compiled for the course Mammal Diversity and Evolution (ANAT/BIOL 345/445). It is primarily based on Wilson and Reeder (2005), though it also includes various extinct families and recent taxonomic updates to extant families based on the scientific literature. I have divided the taxonomic groups into three categories. If you are a currently a student in the course, here is what the different categories mean in terms of the mid-term and final exam.

1. Families in italics:

  • You DO NOT need to know the names or characteristics of these families.
  • You DO NOT need to be able identify the skulls of these families on a practical exam, at least not to family.

2. Groups marked with an asterisk (*):

  • You DO need to know the names of these groups.
  • You DO need to know how to identify members of these groups from a photo, their general morphology and ecology, etc.
  • You DO NOT need to be able to identify the skulls of these groups on a practical exam, though you DO need to be able to refer them to the correct higher-level group. For example, you will not be asked to refer a skull of Genetta to the Family Viverridae, but you might be asked to identify it as a carnivoran or a feliform.

3. All other groups:

  • You DO need to know the names of these groups.
  • You DO need to know how to identify them from a photo, their general morphology and ecology, etc.
  • You DO need to be able to identify the skulls of these groups on a practical exam.
  • You DO need to know which names correspond to orders and families.
  • You DO need to know the hierarchical relationships of these groups
  • You DO NOT need to know the ranks of groups other than orders and families.

All supraordinal groups are in bold or underlined. This is only done to help clarify their hierarchical relationships. The hierarchical relationships of subordinal groups are indicated by the degree of indentation. More subordinate groups are indented to a greater degree.

If you would like to hear how to pronounce a group name, click the abbreviation to the left of the name.

PRO
Mon
Orn
Tac
PROTOTHERIA
clearOrder Monotremata
clearFamily Ornithorhynchidae: platypus
clearFamily Tachyglossidae: echidnas
MET
Spr
Bor
Hat
Prb
Thy
Mar
Dim
Did
Pau
Abd
Cae
Pom
Arg
Gro
Pol
Mit
Mic
Dam
Das
Myr
Thy
Nom
Not
Pem
Cha
Per
Thy
Dip
Maf
Hyp
Mac
Pot
Phf
Acr
Pet
Pse
Tar
Bur
Pha
Vof
Pha
Vom
METATHERIA
clearOrder †Sparassodonta*: South American carnivorous marsupials
clearFamily †Borhyaenidae*
clearFamily †Hathliacynidae
clearFamily †Proborhyaenidae
clearFamily †Thylacosmilidae*
Marsupialia
clearOrder Didelphimorphia
clearFamily Didelphidae: American opossums
clearOrder Paucituberculata
clearFamily †Abderitidae
clearFamily Caenolestidae*: shrew opossums
clearOrder †Polydolopimorphia
clearFamily †Argyrolagidae
clearFamily †Groeberiidae
clearFamily †Polydolopidae
clearOrder Microbiotheria
clearFamily Microbiotheriidae*: monitos del monte
clearOrder Dasyuromorphia
clearFamily Dasyuridae: native “cats” and “mice”, antechinuses, etc.
clearFamily Myrmecobiidae: numbat
clearFamily Thylacinidae: thylacine
clearOrder Notoryctemorphia
clearFamily Notoryctidae*: marsupial moles
clearOrder Peramelemorphia
clearFamily †Chaeropodidae*: pig-footed bandicoot
clearFamily Peramelidae: bandicoots
clearFamily Thylacomyidae*: bilbies
clearOrder Diprotodontia
clearSuborder Macropodiformes
clearFamily Hypsiprymnodontidae: musky rat kangaroo
clearFamily Macropodidae: kangaroos and wallabies
clearFamily Potoroidae: bettongs, rat kangaroos
clearSuborder Phalangeriformes
clearFamily Acrobatidae*: feathertail glider, feathertail possum
clearFamily Petauridae*: lesser gliders, Leadbeater’s possum, striped possums
clearFamily Pseudocheiridae: ringtail possums, greater glider
clearFamily Tarsipedidae*: honey possum
clearFamily Burramyidae: pygmy possums
clearFamily Phalangeridae: brushtail possums, cuscuses
clearSuborder Vombatiformes
clearFamily Phascolarctidae: koala
clearFamily Vombatidae: wombats
EUT
PLA
XEN
Pil
Ver
Cyc
Myr
Tar
Bra
Mel
Myl
Met
Not
Cin
Das
Gly
Pam
Pel
EUTHERIA
Placentalia
Xenarthra
clearOrder Pilosa
clearSuborder Vermilingua
clearFamily Cyclopedidae: silky anteaters
clearFamily Myrmecophagidae: anteaters
clearSuborder Tardigrada
clearFamily Bradypodidae: three-toed sloths
clearFamily Megalonychidae: two-toes sloths
clearFamily †Mylodontidae*: extinct sloths
clearFamily †Megatheriidae*: extinct sloths
clearFamily †Nothrotheriidae*: extinct sloths
clearOrder Cingulata
clearFamily Dasypodidae: armadillos
clearFamily †Glyptodontidae*: glyptodonts
clearFamily †Pampatheriidae*: pampatheres
clearFamily †Peltephilidae*: horned armadillos
AFO
Afr
Chr
Ptd
Ten
Mac
Mar
Tub
Ory
PAE
Hya
Pro
TET
Pro
Ele
Sir
Dug
Tri
Emb
Ars
Des
Afrotheria
clearOrder Afrosoricida
clearFamily Chrysochloridae: golden moles
clearFamily Potamogalidae*: African otter-shrews
clearFamily Tenrecidae: tenrecs
clearOrder Macroscelidea
clearFamily Macroscelididae: sengis
clearOrder Tubulidentata
clearFamily Orycteropidae: aardvarks
Paenungulata
clearOrder Hyracoidea
clearFamily Procaviidae: hyraxes
Tethytheria (within Paenungulata)
clearOrder Proboscidea
clearFamily Elephantidae: elephants
clearOrder Sirenia
clearFamily Dugongidae: dugong
clearFamily Trichechidae: manatees
clearOrder †Embrithopoda
clearFamily †Arsinoitheriidae
clearOrder †Desmostylia
LAU
Car
Fef
Nim
Nan
Fel
Viv
Hya
Her
Eup
Caf
Can
Urs
Pin
Pho
Ota
Odo
Mus
Ail
Mep
Pro
Mus
Pho
Man
Chi
Yin
Pte
Rhl
Hip
Meg
Cra
Rhp
Yan
Emb
Nyc
Phy
Mor
Noc
Fur
Thy
Mys
Myz
Min
Ves
Mol
Nat
Per
Eqi
Tap
Rhi
Bro
Cha
EUL
Eri
Sol
Nes
Sor
Tal
CTA
Art
Suf
Sud
Ent
Tay
Tyl
Cam
Pro
Ore
Whi
Hip
Rum
Tra
Ant
Gir
Cer
Mos
Bov
Cet
Odo
Del
Ini
Mon
Pho
Phy
Pla
Zip
Mys
Bld
Blp
Ctt
Esc
Laurasiatheria
clearOrder Carnivora
clearSuborder Feliformia
clearFamily †Nimravidae
clearFamily Nandiniidae: African palm civet
clearFamily Felidae: cats
clearFamily Viverridae*: civets, genets
clearFamily Hyaenidae: hyenas
clearFamily Herpestidae: mongooses
clearFamily Eupleridae*: Malagasy carnivorans
clearSuborder Caniformia
clearFamily Canidae: dogs, foxes, wolves
clearFamily Ursidae: bears
clearPinnipedia
clearFamily Phocidae: true seals
clearFamily Otariidae: sea lions and fur seals
clearFamily Odobenidae: walrus
clearMusteloidea
clearFamily Ailuridae: red panda
clearFamily Mephitidae:* skunks, stink badgers
clearFamily Procyonidae: raccoons, coatis
clearFamily Mustelidae: weasels, badgers
clearOrder Pholidota
clearFamily Manidae: pangolins
clearOrder Chiroptera
clearSuborder Yinpterochiroptera*
clearFamily Pteropodidae: Old World fruit bats
clearFamily Rhinolophidae*: horseshoe bats
clearFamily Hipposideridae*: leaf-nosed, roundleaf, and trident bats
clearFamily Megadermatidae: false vampire bats
clearFamily Craseonycteridae: bumblebee bat
clearFamily Rhinopomatidae: mouse-tailed bats
clearSuborder Yangochiroptera*
clearFamily Emballonuridae: sac-winged and sheath-tailed bats
clearFamily Nycteridae: slit-faced bats
clearFamily Phyllostomidae*: New World leaf-nosed bats
clearFamily Mormoopidae: ghost-faced, moustached, naked-backed bats
clearFamily Noctilionidae*: bulldog bats/fishing bats
clearFamily Furipteridae: smoky and thumbless bats
clearFamily Thyropteridae*: disc-winged bats
clearFamily Mystacinidae*: New Zealand short-tailed bats
clearFamily Myzopodidae: Old World sucker-footed bat
clearFamily Miniopteridae: bent-wing bats
clearFamily Vespertilionidae: evening and vesper batsx
clearFamily Molossidae*: free-tailed bats
clearFamily Natalidae: funnel-eared bats
clearOrder Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates
clearFamily Equidae: horses
clearFamily Tapiridae: tapirs
clearFamily Rhinocerotidae: rhinos
clearFamily †Brontotheriidae*
clearFamily †Chalicotheriidae*
clearOrder Eulipotyphla
clearFamily Erinaceidae: hedgehogs, gymnures/moonrats
clearFamily Solenodontidae: solenodons
clearFamily †Nesophontidae
clearFamily Soricidae: shrews
clearFamily Talpidae: moles, desmans
Cetartiodactyla
clear“Order” Artiodactyla (no longer a natural group in and of itself)
clearSuiformes
clearFamily Suidae: pigs
clearFamily †Entelodontidae*
clearFamily Tayassuidae: peccaries
clearTylopoda
clearFamily Camelidae: camels
clearFamily †Protoceratidae
clear†Oreodontoidea*: oreodonts (various families)
clearWhippomorpha (includes Cetacea, below)
clearFamily Hippopotamidae: hippos
clearRuminantia
clearFamily Tragulidae: chevrotains and mouse deer
clearFamily Antilocapridae: pronghorn
clearFamily Giraffidae: giraffes and okapi
clearFamily Cervidae: deer, elk, moose, etc.
clearFamily Moschidae: musk deer
clearFamily Bovidae: cattle, sheep, antelope, goats, etc.
clear“Order” Cetacea (probably no longer ordinal rank)
clearSuborder Odontoceti
clearFamily Delphinidae: dolphins, orcas, etc.
clearFamily Iniidae*: river dolphins
clearFamily Monodontidae: narwhal, beluga
clearFamily Phocoenidae: porpoises
clearFamily Physeteridae: sperm whales
clearFamily Platanistidae*: Indian river dolphins
clearFamily Ziphiidae*: beaked whales
clearSuborder Mysticeti
clearFamily Balaenidae*: right, bowhead whales
clearFamily Balaenopteridae*: rorquals
clearFamily Cetotheriidae: pygmy right whale
clearFamily Eschrichtiidae*: gray whale
EUG
EUR
Sca
Pti
Tup
Der
Cyn
Pri
Str
Gal
Lor
Chi
Lem
Lep
Ind
Dau
Hap
Tar
Cat
Cer
Hyl
Hom
Pla
Aot
Ate
Ceb
Pit
GLI
Lag
Lep
Och
Rod
Anm
Ano
Ped
Zen
Cam
Cas
Geo
Het
Hym
Ctd
Dia
Hyg
Hys
Pet
Thy
Cap
Abr
Cap
Cav
Chi
Ctm
Cun
Dap
Din
Ech
Ere
Oct
Mym
Dip
Cal
Cri
Mur
Nes
Pal
Spa
Scm
Apl
Myl
Gli
Sci
Euarchontoglires
Euarchonta
clearOrder Scandentia
clearFamily Ptilocercidae*: pen-tailed treeshrew
clearFamily Tupaiidae: treeshrews
clearOrder Dermoptera
clearFamily Cynocephalidae: colugos (aka “flying lemurs”)
clearOrder Primates
clearSuborder Strepsirrhini
clearFamily Galagidae: galagos and bushbabies
clearFamily Lorisidae: lorises and pottos
clearFamily Cheirogaleidae*: dwarf and mouse lemurs
clearFamily Lemuridae: true lemurs
clearFamily Lepilemuridae*: sportive lemurs
clearFamily Indriidae*: indris, sifakas
clearFamily Daubentoniidae: aye-aye
clearSuborder Haplorrhini
clearFamily Tarsiidae: tarsiers
clearCatarrhini
clearFamily Cercopithecidae: Old World monkeys
clearFamily Hylobatidae*: gibbons
clearFamily Hominidae: great apes
clearPlatyrrhini
clearFamily Aotidae: night monkeys
clearFamily Atelidae: prehensile-tailed monkeys
clearFamily Cebidae: tamarins, marmosets, capuchins
clearFamily Pitheciidae*: titi monkeys, sakis, uakari
Glires
clearOrder Lagomorpha
clearFamily Leporidae: rabbits and hares
clearFamily Ochotonidae: pikas
clearOrder Rodentia
clearSuborder Anomaluromorpha*
clearFamily Anomaluridae*: scaly-tailed squirrels
clearFamily Pedetidae: springhares
clearFamily Zenkerellidae: Cameroon scaly-tail
clearSuborder Castorimorpha*
clearFamily Castoridae: beavers
clearFamily Geomyidae: pocket gophers
clearFamily Heteromyidae: kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice
clearSuborder Hystricomorpha*
clearFamily Ctenodactylidae: gundis
clearFamily Diatomyidae*
clearInfraorder Hystricognathi
clearFamily Hystricidae*: Old World porcupines
clearFamily Petromuridae: dassie rat
clearFamily Thryonomyidae: cane rats
clearCaviomorpha: endemic South American rodents
clearFamily Abrocomidae: chinchilla rats
clearFamily Capromyidae*: West Indian hutias
clearFamily Caviidae: guinea pigs, capybara, mara
clearFamily Chinchillidae: chinchillas and viscachas
clearFamily Ctenomyidae*: tuco-tucos
clearFamily Cuniculidae: pacas
clearFamily Dasyproctidae: agoutis and acouchis
clearFamily Dinomyidae*: pacarana
clearFamily Echimyidae*: spiny rats (including the nutria)
clearFamily Erethizontidae: New World porcupines
clearFamily Octodontidae: degus, rock rats, viscacha rats
clearSuborder Myomorpha*
clearFamily Dipodidae*: jerboas, birch mice, jumping mice
clearFamily Calomyscidae: mouse-like hamsters
clearFamily Cricetidae: New world mice, rats, voles, hamsters
clearFamily Muridae*: Old World mice, rats, gerbils
clearFamily Nesomyidae: endemic Africa and Malagasy mice
clearFamily Platacanthomyidae: Malabar spiny dormouse, pygmy dormice
clearFamily Spalacidae: blind and African mole rats, zokors, bamboo rats
clearSuborder Sciuromorpha*
clearFamily Aplodontiidae: mountain beaver
clearFamily †Mylagaulidae*: extinct
clearFamily Gliridae*: dormice and hazel mice
clearFamily Sciuridae: squirrels
Not
Tox
Hom
Nod
Tod
Typ
Int
Mes
Heg
Lit
Pro
Mac
Pyr
Pyd
Ast
Asd
Incertae sedis (within Eutheria)
clearOrder †Notoungulata
clearSuborder †Toxodontia
clearFamily †Homalodotheriidae*
clearFamily †Notohippidae*
clearFamily †Toxodontidae*
clearSuborder †Typotheria
clearFamily †Interatheriidae*
clearFamily †Mesotheriidae*
clearFamily †Hegetotheriidae*
clearOrder †Litopterna
clearFamily †Proterotheriidae*
clearFamily †Macraucheniidae*
clearOrder †Pyrotheria*
clearFamily †Pyrotheriidae*
clearOrder †Astrapotheria*
clearFamily †Astrapotheriidae*

 

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